These are the pathways for obtaining Canadian citizenship:
Naturalization is the legal process that transforms a permanent resident into a Canadian citizen. As a permanent resident, you can apply for grant of citizenship if you have fulfilled several requirements, such as having resided in Canada for at least 1,095 days within the past 5 years, paid taxes or show adequate knowledge of English or French.
- BY BIRTH IN CANADA (JUS SOLI)
Jus soli is the principle that territory governs citizenship. Under jus soli, at birth, you are automatically granted citizenship of the country in which you were born, regardless of the citizenship or immigration status of your parents. This principle does not apply if your parent was a representative of a foreign government at the time of your birth.
- BY BIRTH OUTSIDE OF CANADA TO A CANADIAN PARENT (JUS SANGUINIS)
Jus sanguinis is the principle that lineage (blood line) is governing citizenship. Under jus sanguinis, at birth you are automatically granted citizenship of the country of which one of your parents is a citizen. If your parents are citizens of separate or multiple countries, you are granted citizenship of both or all of those countries.
There are exceptions to this rule, for example if your Canadian parent has also received their citizenship by descent,
- BY ADOPTION BY A CANADIAN CITIZEN
Children born outside of Canada adopted by Canadian citizens are treated the same as biological children born abroad to Canadian citizens.